The proverbial glass ceiling had been cracked in almost every industry, and I believed that it was just a matter of time until my generation took our fair share of the leadership roles
David Cotter, who invented the metaphor, defined the 4 major properties of “glass ceilings”:
- A gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of the employee.
- A gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome.
- A gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels.
- A gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career.
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